DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
Americans with Disabilities Act Questions and
Barriers to employment, transportation, public accommodations, public services, and telecommunications have imposed staggering economic and social costs on American society and have undermined our well-intentioned efforts to educate, rehabilitate, and employ individuals with disabilities. By breaking down these barriers, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) will enable society to benefit from the skills and talents of individuals with disabilities, will allow us all to gain from their increased purchasing power and ability to use it, and will lead to fuller, more productive lives for all Americans.
The Americans with Disabilities Act gives civil rights protections
to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals
on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion.
guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, State and local government services, and telecommunications.
Fair, swift, and effective enforcement of this landmark civil rights legislation is a high priority of the Federal Government. This booklet is designed to provide answers to some of the most often asked questions about the ADA.
For answers to additional questions, call the ADA Information Line
800-514-0301 (voice) 800-514-0383 (TDD)
Additional ADA resources are listed in the Resources section of this document, page 30.
Q. What employers are covered by title I of the ADA, and when is the coverage effective?
A. The title I employment provisions apply to private employers, State and local governments, employment agencies, and labor unions. Employers with 25 or more employees were covered as of July 26, 1992. Employers with 15 or more employees were covered two years later, beginning July 26, 1994.
Q. What practices and activities are covered by the employment nondiscrimination requirements?
A. The ADA prohibits discrimination in all employment practices, including job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. It applies to recruitment, advertising, tenure, layoff, leave, fringe benefits, and all other employment-related activities.
Q. Who is protected from employment discrimination?
A. Employment discrimination is prohibited against qualified individuals with disabilities. This includes applicants for employment and employees. An individual is considered to have a disability if s/he has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment. Persons discriminated against because they have a known association or relationship with an individual with a disability also are protected.
The first part of the definition makes clear that the ADA applies to
persons who have impairments and that these must substantially limit
major life activities such as seeing, hearing, speaking, walking, breathing,
performing manual tasks, learning, caring for oneself, and working.
An individual with epilepsy, paralysis, HIV infection, AIDS, a substantial
hearing or visual impairment, mental retardation, or a specific learning
disability is covered, but an individual with a minor, nonchronic condition
of short duration, such as a sprain, broken limb, or the flu, generally
would not be
The second part of the definition protecting individuals with a record of a disability would cover, for example, a person who has recovered from cancer or mental illness.
The third part of the definition protects individuals who are regarded as having a substantially limiting impairment, even though they may not have such an impairment. For example, this provision would protect a qualified individual with a severe facial disfigurement from being denied employment because an employer feared the negative reactions of customers or co-workers.
Q. Who is a qualified individual with a disability?
A. A qualified individual with a disability is a person who meets legitimate skill, experience, education, or other requirements of an employment position that s/he holds or seeks, and who can perform the essential functions of the position with or without reasonable accommodation. Requiring the ability to perform essential functions assures that an individual with a disability will not be considered unqualified simply because of inability to perform marginal or incidental job functions. If the individual is qualified to perform essential job functions except for limitations caused by a disability, the employer must consider whether the individual could perform these functions with a reasonable accommodation. If a written job description has been prepared in advance of advertising or interviewing applicants for a job, this will be considered as evidence, although not conclusive evidence, of the essential functions of the job.
Q. Does an employer have to give preference to a qualified applicant with a disability over other applicants?
A. No. An employer is free to select the most qualified applicant available
and to make decisions based on reasons unrelated to a disability. For
example, suppose two persons apply for a job as a
typist and an essential function of the job is to type 75 words per minute accurately. One applicant, an individual with a disability, who is provided with a reasonable accommodation for a typing test, types 50 words per minute; the other applicant who has no disability accurately types 75 words per minute. The employer can hire the applicant with the higher typing speed, if typing speed is needed for successful performance of the job.
Q. What limitations does the ADA impose on medical examinations and inquiries about disability?
A. An employer may not ask or require a job applicant to take a medical
examination before making a job offer. It cannot make any pre-employment
inquiry about a disability or the nature or severity
of a disability. An employer may, however, ask questions about the ability to perform specific job functions and may, with certain limitations, ask an individual with a disability to describe or demonstrate how s/he would perform these functions.
An employer may condition a job offer on the satisfactory result of a post-offer medical examination or medical inquiry if this is required of all entering employees in the same job category. A post-offer examination or inquiry does not have to be job-related and consistent with business necessity.
However, if an individual is not hired because a post-offer medical examination or inquiry reveals a disability, the reason(s) for not hiring must be job-related and consistent with business necessity. The employer also must show that no reasonable accommodation was available that would enable the individual to perform the essential job functions, or that accommodation would impose an undue hardship. A post-offer medical examination may disqualify an individual if the employer can demonstrate that the individual would pose a direct threat in the workplace (i.e., a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of the individual or others) that cannot be eliminated or reduced below the direct threat level through reasonable accommodation. Such a disqualification is job-related and consistent with business necessity. A post-offer medical examination may not disqualify an individual with a disability who is currently able to perform essential job functions because of speculation that the disability may cause a risk of future injury.
After a person starts work, a medical examination or inquiry of an employee must be job-related and consistent with business necessity. Employers may conduct employee medical examinations where there is evidence of a job performance or safety problem, examinations required by other Federal laws, examinations to determine current fitness to perform a particular job, and voluntary examinations that are part of employee health programs.
Information from all medical examinations and inquiries must be kept apart from general personnel files as a separate, confidential medical record, available only under limited conditions.
Tests for illegal use of drugs are not medical examinations under the ADA and are not subject to the restrictions of such examinations.
Q. When can an employer ask an applicant to self-identify as having a disability?
A. Federal contractors and subcontractors who are covered by the affirmative action requirements of section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 may invite individuals with disabilities to identify themselves on a job application form or by other pre-employment inquiry, to satisfy the section 503 affirmative action requirements. Employers who request such information must observe section 503 requirements regarding the manner in which such information is requested and used, and the procedures for maintaining such information as a separate, confidential record, apart from regular personnel records.
A pre-employment inquiry about a disability is allowed if required by another Federal law or regulation such as those applicable to disabled veterans and veterans of the Vietnam era. Pre-employment inquiries about disabilities may be necessary under such laws to identify applicants or clients with disabilities in order to provide them with required special services.
Q. Does the ADA require employers to develop written job descriptions?
A. No. The ADA does not require employers to develop or maintain job
descriptions. However, a written job description that is prepared before
advertising or interviewing applicants for a job will be
considered as evidence along with other relevant factors. If an employer uses job descriptions, they should be reviewed to make sure they accurately reflect the actual functions of a job. A job description will be most helpful if it focuses on the results or outcome of a job function, not solely on the way it customarily is performed. A reasonable accommodation may enable a person with a disability to accomplish a job function in a manner that is different from the way an employee who is not disabled may accomplish the same function.
Q. What is reasonable accommodation?
A. Reasonable accommodation is any modification or adjustment to a
job or the work environment that will enable a qualified applicant or
employee with a disability to participate in the application
process or to perform essential job functions. Reasonable accommodation also includes adjustments to assure that a qualified individual with a disability has rights and privileges in employment equal to those of employees without disabilities.
Q. What are some of the accommodations applicants and employees may need?
A. Examples of reasonable accommodation include making existing facilities
used by employees readily accessible to and usable by an individual
with a disability; restructuring a job; modifying work
schedules; acquiring or modifying equipment; providing qualified readers or interpreters; or appropriately modifying examinations, training, or other programs. Reasonable accommodation also may include reassigning a current employee to a vacant position for which the individual is qualified, if the person is unable to do the original job because of a disability even with an accommodation. However, there is no obligation to find a position for an applicant who is not qualified for the position sought. Employers are not required to lower quality or quantity standards as an accommodation; nor are they obligated to provide personal use items such as glasses or hearing aids.
The decision as to the appropriate accommodation must be based on the
particular facts of each case. In selecting the particular type of reasonable
accommodation to provide, the principal test is
that effectiveness, i.e., whether the accommodation will provide an opportunity for a person with a disability to achieve the same level of performance and to enjoy benefits equal to those of an average, similarly situated person without a disability. However, the accommodation does not have to ensure equal results or provide exactly the same benefits.
Q. When is an employer required to make a reasonable accommodation?
A. An employer is only required to accommodate a known disability of a qualified applicant or employee. The requirement generally will be triggered by a request from an individual with a disability, who frequently will be able to suggest an appropriate accommodation. Accommodations must be made on an individual basis, because the nature and extent of a disabling condition and the requirements of a job will vary in each case. If the individual does not request an accommodation, the employer is not obligated to provide one except where an individual's known disability impairs his/her ability to know of, or effectively communicate a need for, an accommodation that is obvious to the employer. If a person with a disability requests, but cannot suggest, an appropriate accommodation, the employer and the individual should work together to identify one. There are also many public and private resources that can provide assistance without cost.
Q. What are the limitations on the obligation to make a reasonable accommodation?
A. The individual with a disability requiring the accommodation must
be otherwise qualified, and the disability must be known to the employer.
In addition, an employer is not required to make an
accommodation if it would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the employers business. Undue hardship is defined as an action requiring significant difficulty or expense when considered in
light of a number of factors. These factors include the nature and cost of the accommodation in relation to the size, resources, nature, and structure of the employer's operation. Undue hardship is determined on a case-by-case basis. Where the facility making the accommodation is part of a larger entity, the structure and overall resources of the larger organization would be considered, as well as the financial and administrative relationship of the facility to the larger organization. In general, a larger employer with greater resources would be expected to make accommodations requiring greater effort or expense than would be required of a smaller employer with fewer resources.
If a particular accommodation would be an undue hardship, the employer
must try to identify another accommodation that will not pose such a
hardship. Also, if the cost of an accommodation would
impose an undue hardship on the employer, the individual with a disability should be given the option of paying that portion of the cost which would constitute an undue hardship or providing the
Q. Must an employer modify existing facilities to make them accessible?
A. The employer's obligation under title I is to provide access for an individual applicant to participate in the job application process, and for an individual employee with a disability to perform the essential functions of his/her job, including access to a building, to the work site, to needed equipment, and to all facilities used by employees. For example, if an employee lounge is located in a place inaccessible to an employee using a wheelchair, the lounge might be modified or relocated, or comparable facilities might be provided in a location that would enable the individual to take a break with co-workers. The employer must provide such access unless it would cause an undue hardship.
Under title I, an employer s not required to make its existing facilities accessible until a particular applicant or employee with a particular disability needs an accommodation, and then the modifications should meet that individual's work needs. However, employers should consider initiating changes that will provide general accessibility, particularly for job applicants, since it is likely that people with disabilities will be applying for jobs. The employer does not have to make changes to provide access in places or facilities that will not be used by that individual for employment-related activities or benefits.
Q. Can an employer be required to reallocate an essential function of a job to another employee as a reasonable accommodation?
A. No. An employer is not required to reallocate essential functions of a job as a reasonable accommodation.
Q. Can an employer be required to modify, adjust, or make other reasonable accommodations in the way a test is given to a qualified applicant or employee with a disability?
A. Yes. Accommodations may be needed to assure that tests or examinations measure the actual ability of an individual to perform job functions rather than reflect limitations caused by the disability. Tests should be given to people who have sensory, speaking, or manual impairments in a format that does not require the use of the impaired skill, unless it is a job-related skill that the test is designed to measure.
Q. Can an employer maintain existing production/performance standards for an employee with a disability?
A. An employer can hold employees with disabilities to the same standards
of production/performance as other similarly situated employees without
disabilities for performing essential job functions, with or without
reasonable accommodation. An employer also can hold employees with disabilities
to the same standards of production/performance as other employees regarding
marginal functions unless the disability affects the person's ability
to perform those marginal functions. If the ability to perform marginal
functions is affected by the disability, the employer must
provide some type of reasonable accommodation such as job restructuring but may not exclude an individual with a disability who is satisfactorily performing a job's essential functions.
Q. Can an employer establish specific attendance and leave policies?
A. An employer can establish attendance and leave policies that are uniformly applied to all employees, regardless of disability, but may not refuse leave needed by an employee with a disability if other employees get such leave. An employer also may be required to make adjustments in leave policy as a reasonable accommodation. The employer is not obligated to provide additional paid leave, but accommodations may include leave flexibility and unpaid leave.
A uniformly applied leave policy does not violate the ADA because it has a more severe effect on an individual because of his/her disability. However, if an individual with a disability requests a modification of such a policy as a reasonable accommodation, an employer may be required to provide it, unless it would impose an undue hardship.
Q. Can an employer consider health and safety when deciding whether to hire an applicant or retain an employee with a disability?
A. Yes. The ADA permits employers to establish qualification standards
that will exclude individuals who pose a direct threat (i.e., a significant
risk of substantial harm) to the health or safety of the individual
or of others, if that risk cannot be eliminated or reduced below the
level of a direct threat by reasonable accommodation. However, an employer
may not simply assume that a threat exists; the employer must establish
through objective, medically supportable methods that there is significant
risk that substantial harm could occur in the workplace. By requiring employers to make individualized judgments based on reliable medical or other objective evidence rather than on
generalizations, ignorance, fear, patronizing attitudes, or stereotypes, the ADA recognizes the need to balance the interests of people with disabilities against the legitimate interests of employers in maintaining a safe workplace.
Q. Are applicants or employees who are currently illegally using drugs covered by the ADA?
A. No. Individuals who currently engage in the illegal use of drugs are specifically excluded from the definition of a qualified individual with a disability protected by the ADA when the employer takes action on the basis of their drug use.
Q. Is testing for the illegal use of drugs permissible under the ADA?
A. Yes. A test for the illegal use of drugs is not considered a medical examination under the ADA; therefore, employers may conduct such testing of applicants or employees and make employment decisions based on the results. The ADA does not encourage, prohibit, or authorize drug tests.
If the results of a drug test reveal the presence of a lawfully prescribed drug or other medical information, such information must be treated as a confidential medical record.
Q. Are alcoholics covered by the ADA?
A. Yes. While a current illegal user of drugs is not protected by the ADA if an employer acts on the basis of such use, a person who currently uses alcohol is not automatically denied protection. An alcoholic is a person with a disability and is protected by the ADA if s/he is qualified to perform the essential functions of the job.An employer may be required to provide an accommodation to an alcoholic. However, an employer can discipline, discharge or deny employment to an alcoholic whose use of alcohol adversely affects job performance or conduct. An employer also may prohibit the use of alcohol in the workplace and can require that employees not be under the influence of alcohol.
Q. Does the ADA override Federal and State health and safety laws?
A. The ADA does not override health and safety requirements established
under other Federal laws even if a standard adversely affects the employment
of an individual with a disability. If a standard is required by another
Federal law, an employer must comply with it and does not have to show
that the standard is job related and consistent with business necessity.
For example, employers must conform to health and safety requirements
of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. However,
an employer still has the obligation under the ADA to consider whether
there is a reasonable accommodation, consistent with the standards of other Federal laws, that will prevent exclusion of qualified individuals with disabilities who can perform jobs without violating the standards of those laws. If an employer can comply with both the ADA and another Federal law, then the employer must do so.
The ADA does not override State or local laws designed to protect public
health and safety, except where such laws conflict with the ADA requirements.
If there is a State or local law that would
exclude an individual with a disability from a particular job or profession because of a health or safety risk, the employer still must assess whether a particular individual would pose a direct
threat to health or safety under the ADA standard. If such a direct threat exists, the employer must consider whether it could be eliminated or reduced below the level of a direct threat by reasonable accommodation. An employer cannot rely on a State or local law that conflicts with ADA requirements as a defense to a charge of discrimination.
Q. How does the ADA affect workers compensation programs?
A. Only injured workers who meet the ADA's definition of an individual with a disability will be considered disabled under the ADA, regardless of whether they satisfy criteria for receiving benefits under workers compensation or other disability laws. A worker also must be qualified (with or without reasonable accommodation) to be protected by the ADA. Work-related injuries do not always cause physical or mental impairments severe enough to substantially limit a major life activity. Also, many on-the-job injuries cause temporary impairments which heal within a short period of time with little or no long-term or permanent impact. Therefore, many injured workers who qualify for benefits under workers compensation or other disability benefits laws may not be protected by the ADA. An employer must consider work-related injuries on a case-by-case basis to know if a worker is protected by the ADA.
An employer may not inquire into an applicant's workers compensation history before making a conditional offer of employment. After making a conditional job offer, an employer may inquire about a person's workers compensation history in a medical inquiry or examination that is required of all applicants in the same job category. However, even after a conditional offer has been made, an employer cannot require a potential employee to have a medical examination because a response to a medical inquiry (as opposed to results from a medical examination) shows a previous on-the-job injury unless all applicants in the same job category are required to have an examination. Also, an employer may not base an employment decision on the speculation that an applicant may cause increased workers compensation costs in the future. However, an employer may refuse to hire, or may discharge an individual who is not currently able to perform a job without posing a significant risk of substantial harm to the health or safety of the individual or others, if the risk cannot be eliminated or reduced by reasonable accommodation.
An employer may refuse to hire or may fire a person who knowingly provides a false answer to a lawful post-offer inquiry about his/her condition or workers compensation history.
An employer also may submit medical information and records concerning
employees and applicants (obtained after a conditional job offer) to
state workers compensation offices and second injury
funds without violating ADA confidentiality requirements.
Q. What is discrimination based on relationship or association under the ADA?
A. The ADA prohibits discrimination based on relationship or association
in order to protect individuals from actions based on unfounded assumptions
that their relationship to a person with a
disability would affect their job performance, and from actions caused by bias or misinformation concerning certain disabilities.For example, this provision would protect a person whose spouse has
a disability from being denied employment because of an employers unfounded assumption that the applicant would use excessive leave to care for the spouse. It also would protect an individual who
does volunteer work for people with AIDS from a discriminatory employment action motivated by that relationship or association.
Q. How are the employment provisions enforced?
A. The employment provisions of the ADA are enforced under the same
procedures now applicable to race, color, sex, national origin, and
religious discrimination under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
196, as amended, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Complaints regarding
actions that occurred on or after July 26, 1992, may be filed with the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or
designated State human rights agencies. Available remedies will include hiring, reinstatement, promotion, back pay, front pay, restored benefits, reasonable accommodation, attorneys fees, expert witness fees, and court costs. Compensatory and punitive damages also may be available in cases of intentional discrimination or where an employer fails to make a good faith effort to provide a
Q. What financial assistance is available to employers to help them make reasonable accommodations and comply with the ADA?
A. A special tax credit is available to help smaller employers make accommodations required by the ADA. An eligible small business may take a tax credit of up to $5,000 per year for accommodations made to comply with the ADA. The credit is available for one-half the cost of eligible access expenditures that are more than $250 but less than $10,250.
A full tax deduction, up to $15,000 per year, also is available to
any business for expenses of removing qualified architectural or transportation
barriers. Expenses covered include costs of
removing barriers created by steps, narrow doors, inaccessible parking spaces, restroom facilities, and transportation vehicles. Information about the tax credit and the tax deduction can be
obtained from a local IRS office, or by contacting the Office of Chief Counsel, Internal Revenue Service.
Tax credits are available under the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Program (TJTCP) for employers who hire individuals with disabilities referred by State or local vocational rehabilitation agencies, State Commissions on the Blind, or the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and certified by a State Employment Service. Under the TJTCP, a tax credit may be taken for up to 40 percent of the first $6,000 of first-year wages of a new employee with a disability. This program must be reauthorized each year by Congress. Further information about the TJTCP can be obtained from the State Employment Services or from State Governors Committees on the Employment of People with Disabilities.
Q. What are an employers recordkeeping requirements under the employment provisions of the ADA?
A. An employer must maintain records such as application forms submitted by applicants and other records related to hiring, requests for reasonable accommodation, promotion, demotion, transfer, lay-off or termination, rates of pay or other terms of compensation, and selection for training or apprenticeship for one year after making the record or taking the action described (whichever occurs later). If a charge of discrimination is filed or an action is brought by EEOC, an employer must save all personnel records related to the charge until final disposition of the charge.
Q. Does the ADA require that an employer post a notice explaining its requirements?
A. The ADA requires that employers post a notice describing the provisions of the ADA. It must be made accessible, as needed, to individuals with disabilities. A poster is available from EEOC summarizing the requirements of the ADA and other Federal legal requirements for nondiscrimination for which EEOC has enforcement responsibility. EEOC also provides guidance on making this information available in accessible formats for people with disabilities.
Q. What resources does the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission have available to help employers and people with disabilities understand and comply with the employment requirements of the ADA?
A. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has developed several resources to help employers and people with disabilities understand and comply with the employment provisions of the ADA.
A Technical Assistance Manual that provides how-to guidance on the employment provisions of the ADA as well as a resource directory to help individuals find specific information.
A variety of brochures, booklets, and fact sheets.
For information on how to contact the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, see page 30.
State and Local Governments
Q. Does the ADA apply to State and local governments?
A. Title II of the ADA prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals
with disabilities in all programs, activities, and services of public
entities. It applies to all State and local governments, their departments
and agencies, and any other instrumentalities or special purpose districts
of State or local governments. It clarifies the requirements of section
504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 for public transportation systems
that receive Federal financial assistance, and extends coverage to all
public entities that provide public transportation, whether or not they receive Federal financial assistance. It establishes detailed standards for the operation of public transit systems, including
commuter and intercity rail (AMTRAK).
Q. When do the requirements for State and local governments become effective?
A. In general, they became effective on January 26, 1992.
Q. How does title II affect participation in a State or local government's programs, activities, and services?
A. A state or local government must eliminate any eligibility criteria
for participation in programs, activities, and services that screen
out or tend to screen out persons with disabilities, unless it can
establish that the requirements are necessary for the provision of the service, program, or activity. The State or local government may, however, adopt legitimate safety requirements necessary for
safe operation if they are based on real risks, not on stereotypes or generalizations about individuals with disabilities. Finally, a public entity must reasonably modify its policies, practices, or
procedures to avoid discrimination. If the public entity can demonstrate that a particular modification would fundamentally alter the nature of its service, program, or activity, it is not required to make that modification.
Q. Does title II cover a public entity's employment policies and practices?
A. Yes. Title II prohibits all public entities, regardless of the size
of their work force, from discriminating in employment against qualified
individuals with disabilities. In addition to title IIs
employment coverage, title I of the ADA and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibit employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities by certain public entities
Q. What changes must a public entity make to its existing facilities to make them accessible?
A. A public entity must ensure that individuals with disabilities are
not excluded from services, programs, and activities because existing
buildings are inaccessible. A State or local government's
programs, when viewed in their entirety, must be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. This standard, known as program accessibility, applies to facilities of a public entity that existed on January 26, 1992. Public entities do not necessarily have to make each of their existing facilities accessible. They may provide program accessibility by a number of methods including alteration of existing facilities, acquisition or construction of additional facilities, relocation of a service or program to an accessible facility, or provision of services at alternate accessible sites.
Q. When must structural changes be made to attain program accessibility?
A. Structural changes needed for program accessibility must be made
as expeditiously as possible, but no later than January 26, 1995. This
three-year time period is not a grace period; all alterations
must be accomplished as expeditiously as possible. A public entity that employs 50 or more persons must have developed a transition plan by July 26, 1992, setting forth the steps necessary to
complete such changes.
Q. What is a self-evaluation?
A. A self-evaluation is a public entity's assessment of its current
policies and practices. The self-evaluation identifies and corrects
those policies and practices that are inconsistent with title IIs requirements.
All public entities must complete a self-evaluation by January 26, 1993.
A public entity that employs 50 or more employees must retain its self-evaluation
for three years. Other public entities are not required to retain their
self-evaluations, but are encouraged to do so because these
documents evidence a public entity's good faith efforts to comply with title IIs requirements.
Q. What does title II require for new construction and alterations?
A. The ADA requires that all new buildings constructed by a State or local government be accessible. In addition, when a State or local government undertakes alterations to a building, it must make the altered portions accessible.
Q. How will a State or local government know that a new building is accessible?
A. A State or local government will be in compliance with the ADA for
new construction and alterations if it follows either of two accessibility
standards. It can choose either the Uniform Federal
Accessibility Standards or the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities, which is the standard that must be used for public accommodations and commercial
facilities under title III of the ADA. If the State or local government chooses the ADA Accessibility Guidelines, it is not entitled to the elevator exemption (which permits certain private buildings under three stories or under 3,000 square feet per floor to be constructed without an elevator).
Q What requirements apply to a public entity's emergency telephone services, such as 911?
A. State and local agencies that provide emergency telephone services
must provide direct access to individuals who rely on a TDD or computer
modem for telephone communication. Telephone access
through a third party or through a relay service does not satisfy the requirement for direct access. Where a public entity provides 911 telephone service, it may not substitute a separate seven-digit telephone line as the sole means for access to 911 services by nonvoice users. A public entity may, however, provide a separate seven-digit line for the exclusive use of nonvoice callers in addition to providing direct access for such calls to its 911 line.
Q. Does title II require that telephone emergency service systems be compatible with all formats used for nonvoice communications?
A. No. At present, telephone emergency services must only be compatible with the Baudot format. Until it can be technically proven that communications in another format can operate in a reliable and compatible manner in a given telephone emergency environment, a public entity would not be required to provide direct access to computer modems using formats other than Baudot.
Q. How will the ADA's requirements for State and local governments be enforced?
A. Private individuals may bring lawsuits to enforce their rights under title II and may receive the same remedies as those provided under section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, including reasonable attorney's fees. Individuals may also file complaints with eight designated Federal agencies, including the Department of Justice and the Department of Transportation.
Q. What are public accommodations?
A. A public accommodation is a private entity that owns, operates,
leases, or leases to, a place of public accommodation. Places of public
accommodation include a wide range of entities, such as
restaurants, hotels, theaters, doctors' offices, pharmacies, retail stores, museums, libraries, parks, private schools, and day care centers. Private clubs and religious organizations are exempt from
the ADA's title III requirements for public accommodations.
Q. Will the ADA have any effect on the eligibility criteria used by public accommodations to determine who may receive services?
A. Yes. If a criterion screens out or tends to screen out individuals with disabilities, it may only be used if necessary for the provision of the services. For instance, it would be a violation for a retail store to have a rule excluding all deaf persons from entering the premises, or for a movie theater to exclude all individuals with cerebral palsy. More subtle forms of discrimination are also prohibited. For example, requiring presentation of a drivers license as the sole acceptable means of identification for purposes of paying by check could constitute discrimination against individuals with vision impairments. This would be true if such individuals are ineligible to receive licenses and the use of an alternative means of identification is feasible.