what is the difference between chapter 7,11 and13

Asked on July 4, 2009 under Bankruptcy Law, Arizona

Answers:

M.D., Member, California and New York Bar / FreeAdvice Contributing Attorney

Answered 11 years ago | Contributor

Here's a link to a site that I think you will find helpful:  http://www.uscourts.gov/bankruptcycourts/bankruptcybasics/process.html

You may want to consult with an attorney in your area on this.  if you need help in finding one that specializes in these type cases you can try:  www.AttorneyPages.com.

Best of luck.

M.T.G., Member, New York Bar / FreeAdvice Contributing Attorney

Answered 11 years ago | Contributor

"Chapter 7 is the most common form of bankruptcy. It is a liquidation proceeding in which the debtor's non-exempt assets, if any, are sold by the Chapter 7 trustee and the proceeds distributed to creditors according to the priorities among creditors established in the bankruptcy Code.  Chapter 7  is available to individuals, married couples, corporations and partnerships. Individual debtors get a discharge within 4-6 months of filing the case.  

If there are assets which are not exempt, the trustee takes control of those assets, sells them and pays creditors as much as the proceeds permit. Any wages the debtor earns after the case is begun are the debtor's; the creditors have no claim on those earnings.

Chapter 11 is a reorganization proceeding, typically for corporations or partnerships. Individuals, especially those whose debts exceed the limits of Chapter 13, may file Chapter 11.  In Chapter 11, the debtor usually remains in possession of his assets and continues to operate any business, subject to the oversight of the court and the creditors committee.  

The debtor proposes a plan of reorganization which, upon acceptance by a majority of the creditors, is confirmed by the court and binds both the debtor and the creditors to its terms of repayment. Plans can call for repayment out of future profits, sales of some or all of the assets, or a merger or recapitalization.

Chapter 13 is a repayment plan for individuals with regular income and unsecured debt less than $336,900 and secured debt less than $1,010,650. The debtor keeps his property and makes regular payments to the Chapter 13 trustee out of future income to pay creditors over time (3-5 years).  

Repayment in Chapter 13 can range from 10% to 100% depending on the debtor's income and the make up of the debt.   Certain debts that cannot be discharged in Chapter 7 can be discharged in Chapter 13. Chapter 13 also provides a mechanism for individuals to prevent foreclosures and repossessions, while catching up on their secured debts. "


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